# Comparison Arduino, VHDP and VHDL

## Sequential Example#

Main (
LED : OUT STD_LOGIC; --Declare output
){
Process() { --For parallel and procedural programming
LED <= '1'; --LED on
Wait(1000ms); --Wait
LED <= '0'; --LED off
Wait(1000ms); --Wait
}
}
}

## Parallel Calculation Example (+ VARIABLE vs SIGNAL)#

Main (
Xi : IN INTEGER range 0 to 255; --Declare inputs
Yi : IN INTEGER range 0 to 255;
Xo : OUT INTEGER range 0 to 255; --Declare output
Yo : OUT INTEGER range 0 to 255;
){
Process() { --For parallel and procedural programming
Xo <= (Xi / 10) + 5; --Everything calculated in one clock cycle
Yo <= (Yi / 5) + 10; --Second calculation is finished together with first
SIGNAL i1 : INTEGER := 0; --Create integer signal (takes value one cycle after assignment)
VARIABLE i2 : INTEGER := 0; --Create integer variable (takes value immediately, but can only be used in this process)
i1 <= i1 + 1; --Add both + 1
i2 := i2 + 1;
If(i1 > 0){ --The signal is still 0, so this is false
i1 <= i1 - 1;
}
If(i2 > 0){ --The variable is 1 already
i2 := i2 - 1;
}
}
}

## Parallel Process Example#

This is a simple code for an ultrasonic-sensor

Main (
US_Trigger : OUT STD_LOGIC := '0';
US_Echo : IN STD_LOGIC := '0';
){
Process Trigger_Process () {
--Creates an impuls every ~100ms to trigger the distance measurement
US_Trigger <= '1';
Wait(10us);
US_Trigger <= '0';
Wait(100ms);
}
}
Process Echo_Process () {
--Waits for a new echo impuls to calculate the distance
While(US_Echo = '1'){}
While(US_Echo = '0'){}
--Counts the microseconds while the sound travels to the object and back
--58 microseconds = 1cm
For(VARIABLE d : INTEGER := 0; US_Echo = '1'; d := d + 1) {
Wait(58us);
}
--d is now the distance to the object in cm
}
}
}

## Parallel Component Example#

In the libraries you can find Components that form an interface for different hardware. You can find controller for ultrasonic-sensors or for UART data (like Serial in Arduino). Every NewComponent runs in parallel, so you can add as many UART ports as you need.

Main (
US_Trigger : OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(7 downto 0) := '0'; --8 ultrasonic sensors
US_Echo : IN STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(7 downto 0) := '0';
LED : OUT STD_LOGIC; --1 LED to show distance with brightness
){
TYPE Distance_type IS ARRAY (0 to 7) OF NATURAL range 0 to 255;
SIGNAL Distance : Distance_type; --Distances of the 8 sensors
Generate (for i in 0 to 7) { --Generate an controller for every ultrasonic-sensor
NewComponent Ultrasonic_Controller (
Update_Frequency => 15, --Checks 15 times in a second
Trigger => US_Trigger(i),
Echo => US_Echo(i),
Dist => Distance(i),
);
}
--Convert number from 0 to 255 to a 8-bit bit vector
PWM_Generator_Duty <= STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(TO_UNSIGNED(Distance(0), PWM_Generator_Duty'LENGTH));
SIGNAL PWM_Generator_Duty : STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (7 DOWNTO 0);
NewComponent PWM_Generator ( --Outputs distance of first sensor
Duty => PWM_Generator_Duty,
PWM_Out(0) => LED,
);
}

## String Example#

Main (
RX : IN STD_LOGIC; --I/Os for USB to UART converter
TX : OUT STD_LOGIC;
){
Process () {
--Create constant string "Hello World!" (Adds RAM and interface for the stored string)
NewFunction assignString (s"Hello World!", hwStr);
--Output string with UART component below
NewFunction printString (hwStr, UART_Interface_TX_Data, UART_Interface_TX_Busy, UART_Interface_TX_Enable);
Wait(2000ms); --Wait
}
}
SIGNAL UART_Interface_TX_Enable : STD_LOGIC;
SIGNAL UART_Interface_TX_Busy : STD_LOGIC;
SIGNAL UART_Interface_TX_Data : STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (7 DOWNTO 0);
NewComponent UART_Interface --Add a UART interface (You can add as many as needed)
(
Baud_Rate => 9600, --Set Baudrate = 9600
RX => RX,
TX => TX,
TX_Enable => UART_Interface_TX_Enable,
TX_Busy => UART_Interface_TX_Busy,
TX_Data => UART_Interface_TX_Data,
);
}

## Loop Example#

Main (
LEDs_par : OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(0 to 9);
LEDs_seq : OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(0 to 9);
){
Process() { --For parallel and procedural programming
For(i IN 0 to 9) { --Turn every led on in the first clock cycle
LEDs_par(i) <= '1'; --LEDs_par <= (others => '1'); does the same
}
Thread { --Same program as Arduino program
For(VARIABLE i : INTEGER := 0; i < 10; i := i + 1) {
LEDs_seq(i) <= '1'; --Turn LEDs 0-9 on
}
Wait(1000ms); --Wait
i := 0;
While(i < 10) { --Turn LEDs 0-9 off
LEDs_seq(i) <= '0';
i := i + 1;
}
Wait(1000ms); --Wait
}
}
}

## Loop Comparison#

The parallel For and While can be also be used in a Thread.

Main (
LEDs : OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(0 to 9);
){
Process() {
--Turn on LEDs 0-9 sequentially in 12 clock cycles (10 + 1 for start and end)
For(VARIABLE i : INTEGER := 0; i < 10; i := i + 1) {
LEDs(i) <= '1';
}
Wait(1000ms); --Wait
--Turn on LEDs 0-9 parallely in 1 clock cycle
ParFor(i IN 0 to 9) {
LEDs(i) <= '1';
}
Wait(1000ms); --Wait
}
}
}
Last updated on by Hendrik Mennen